• Construction, mining and quarrying
  • Cost varying form material to material to be ripped
  • Hard rock
  • Compared with drilling, blasting
  • Life of ripping tips as well as shortening of undercarriage should be considered.

Characteristic of the material to be ripped influence the selection of ripper type:

  • Number of shank required
  • Ripping speed
  • Amount of ripper penetration

Ripper types

  • Various type rippers are used in the dozers
    • Towed units – cable operated
    • Integrated units – hydraulic operated
    • Backrippers – mounted on frame of the dozer – high duty
  • Intergral rippers two types
    • Hinge type
    • Parallelogram type
  • Tip can be replaced, it protects shank and adopter from damage.
  • When adopter is damaged, next shorter tip so as to reduce the load on the adopter.
  • Protector provides the support to the tip and wear protection to the adopter
  • When protector worn out to 6mm
  • Protector failure – adopter damage

Ripper classification

  • Fixed multiple shank ripper
  • Variable multiple shank ripper
  • Fixed giant ripper
  • Variable giant ripper
  • Fixed multiple shank ripper -simple ripping operation
    • Shank moves – up & down
    • Digging depth adjustable
  • Fixed Giant ripper: single powerful shank
    • not common compare to variable giant ripper
  • Variable multiple shank ripper: change the angle
    • used where there are many boulders or quality of rock not constant
  • The variable giant ripper: single powerful shank
    • Angle of ripper changed according to ground requirements

Ripping efficiency

  • When material is broken, loosen the surface in one direction, then cross ripping should be adopted
  • If material is soft use multiple rippers
  • Ripping should be downhill
  • Avoid reversing when shank is in ground
  • When both dozing and ripping operations are required to be done, it should rip going out and doze on the way in
  • Shank tip should be sharp
  • Use a low gear range
  • When the track start slipping, ripper and shank should be raised
  • For the hard material use shorter tip, for a ordinary work use longest and sharpest point
  • Do not uncover the unripped portion of the rock during dozing of the material loosened by ripping.


  • It has been established that rippability of most the rocks are related to the speed at which the sound wave travels through the rock.
  • Sound travels faster in a dense medium i.e. the greater the speed the greater is the hardness of material.
  • The speed of sound can be determined by the ‘refraction’ seismograph.
  • Thus rocks which propagate sound waves at low velocities are rippable, while rocks which propagate waves at high velocities are not rippable.
  • Marginal rocks – blasting or drilling – correct size of ripper and capacity of tractor
  • Cost of earth excavation, without rock is very less as compared to excavating a rock by ripping.
  • life of undercarriage components will be shortened
  • These factors need be considered while determining the ripping cost.


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